Australian Coffee: Exploring the Land Down Under’s Caffeine Obsession

Hi! My name is Arne. Having spent years working as a barista I'm now on a mission to bring more good coffee to the people. To that end, my team and I provide you with a broad knowledge base on the subject of coffee.

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In Terra Australis, the journey from bean to cup is more than daily routine; Australian coffee is a social ritual, an art form, a cherished tradition.

In Terra Australis, the journey from bean to cup is more than daily routine; Australian coffee is a social ritual, an art form, a cherished tradition.

In a land where diverse landscapes and unique wildlife meet bustling cities, a thriving specialty coffee culture has woven itself into the fabric of everyday life.

Australia’s coffee is synonymous with quality, innovation and a passionate dedication to the perfect brew.

From the origins of espresso in Sydney’s Italian and Greek neighborhoods to the specialty coffee revolution sweeping Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth, Aussie coffees have a fascinating story that deserves exploration.

Join me on this exciting caffeinated adventure in the land down under! Get ready to experience the flavors and stories that have made Aussie coffee an international sensation.

A Brief History of Coffee in Australia

The story of Aussie coffee is a long and interesting one. The first coffee seedlings from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, arrived in the country with the First Fleet, circa 1788. However, the first plantations at Government House succumbed to the unfavorable conditions.

The coffee story didn’t die though. As late as 1939 there are references in The Australian Grocer to the preparation of coffee.

Coffee was expensive. People made it go further by mixing coffee grounds with chicory, crushed egg shells and … wait for it … dynamite! The most common form of coffee consumption was boiling it in milk and adding mustard.

A Brief History of Coffee in Australia

Coffee took a giant leap forward during World War II. Italian and Greek immigrants revolutionized Aussie coffee. They brought specialty coffee beans and espresso machines with them. These innovations resulted in a smoother, sweeter coffee beverage.

Unlike other coffee-loving populations worldwide, here’s where Australians went down the road less traveled. Instead of embracing drip coffee, Australia started a culture and taste for brewing fresh coffee beans as espresso, right from the start.

In addition, there were heavy tea rations throughout the British Empire during the Second World War. This had a significant impact on Australian coffee history. Naturally, restrictions forced Australian service personnel to get their fix from coffee instead. They brought back these preferences and set roots for a thriving coffee culture after the War ended.

To meet this growing demand, migrant-run coffee cafes sprung up in Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and literally everywhere else in Australia. The result? A coffee culture founded on quality rather than convenience.

While espresso-style and specialty coffees were still quite foreign in America and the UK, Australians were brewing espresso and drinking iced coffee as early as the 1950s.

Australian Coffee Culture Today

Italian and Greek-owned coffee shops did more than revolutionize Australian coffee. They expanded Australia’s coffee industry and demand for coffee.

Later, inner-city gentrification and higher disposable incomes fueled the rise of trendy cafes. By the 2000s, you would be hard-pressed to find a major Australian city without hip, independent cafes.

The demand for certified, quality coffee has increased in Australia in recent years. Australian coffee consumers are big on ethical coffee and concerned about sustainability. After all, their coffee industry is the eco-friendliest in the world!

Coffee merchants and roasters tout their eco credentials as part of their sales strategy. Consumers look for these eco credentials to ensure they buy only coffee with a transparent and traceable supply chain.

Australian consumers are crazy about their coffee! Every day, Australians drink 1.3 million cups! But these numbers don’t mean that they will drink substandard coffee. It’s the quality of Australian coffee beans and the discerning consumers that drive the demand.

Many coffee connoisseurs believe Australia has the best coffee in the world, particularly in Melbourne. The city is Australia’s biggest coffee hub and considered the coffee capital of Australia.

Coffee shops here focus on sourcing, roasting properly and brewing only the best coffee beans for every coffee cup. Cafes cater wholly to customers’ dedication to coffee drinking. Single-origin coffees and perfect blends are popular in Melbourne and throughout the whole country.

Starbucks in Australia

Australia is the only market in the developed world where Starbucks took a back seat and scaled down operations. This over countries like France, Italy and Austria, all with established coffee cultures of their own!

Australian Coffee Culture Today

Why did this happen? Well, Australians have a pronounced coffee obsession and deemed Starbucks coffee, dare I say it, sub-par!

You see, Starbucks viewed coffee as a product while Australians did not. To Australians, coffee and espresso-brewing is more than a daily routine; it’s an experience.

Independent cafe owners run 95 percent of the neighborhood coffee shops and businesses. Customers who frequent these establishments develop a personal bond with their baristas. This familiarity, which is difficult to replicate in Starbucks outlets, is a vital aspect of the coffee culture in Australia.

In short, Starbucks failed in Australia because it took a cookie-cutter approach to its expansion there. It failed to recognize that the coffee culture in Australia went back to the 1930s. It did not customize drinks for the local market; the majority of Americans love sugary coffees but Australians generally don’t.

One more thing: the coffee was expensive. And to make matters worse, Starbucks did not adjust prices, despite the 2008 recession.

Australians voted with their feet (and pockets) and stuck to their favorite local cafes. The result? Starbucks shut down most of their under performing locations by 2008.

Could this American coffee chain have done things better? Sure! The proper market research would have told them that Australians had a unique and established coffee culture.

Australian Coffee Culture Around the World

The coffee culture in Australia didn’t just thrive at home but influenced many cities around the world. It’s common to find cafes offering authentic coffee from Australia in New York, London and Paris!

The Bluestone Lane Cafe in New York is a perfect example. Founded by Melbourne native Nick Stone, it offers an authentic Australian coffee experience. The highlight focuses on how Australians produce, roast and brew coffee. This coffee firm also roasts coffee beans to sell at their various New York locations.

Australian coffee brands have made a mark in London too! Cafes like Borough Barista, Kaffeine and Flat White in Soho are teaching Londoners all about Australia’s coffees. At these cafes, you can learn how to select beans for your favorite coffee drink and how to brew coffee to highlight the best of Australia’s beans.

Coffee-growing stars Mountain Top Coffee Farms have also got their hat in the Australian coffee brands ring. The Mountain Top Coffee Company not only grows coffee (they’re famous for double-pass processing), it roasts and sells its beans too. Unique light and medium roast blends like Blue Ridge and Solstice Blend are available on their website.

Sage Oracle Touch Cappuccino Vorne

Australia has a distinct coffee culture. Thousands of cafes nationwide sell fantastic coffees in hundreds of variations.

Flat whites, cappuccinos and lattes reign supreme. While lattes are popular nationwide, Melbourne and Sydney natives prefer cappuccinos. In Perth and Queensland, natives tip their hats to the flat white.

Here’s a comprehensive list of Australian coffee drinks to help you order like a local:

Flat White

Some coffee lovers may argue that a flat white is a latte. But don’t say that within earshot of Australian coffee connoisseurs; theywon’t agree with you!

The flat white consists of an espresso shot with a steamed milk pour, topped with milk foam. The difference, experts insist, is that the steamed milk in this drink has the froth characteristicof a cappuccino rather than a latte.

Long Black

A long black is an Aussie coffee drink like an americano. A word of advice: don’t make the mistake of equating the two drinks in front of a barista from down under!

Australians view an americano as an espresso shot with hot water added, but a long black as hot water with an espresso shot added. The difference between the former and the latter is a stronger, more flavorful coffee drink. Or so they’d have you believe!

Short Black

Some coffee drinkers may say, “Are Aussies having a laugh? Isn’t a short black an espresso?” Well, technically, yes, an espresso and short black are virtually the same drink.

An espresso is a 1-2 ounce (30-60 milliliter) shot of coffee extracted for 25-30 seconds. Like an espresso, there’s no added water in a short black, except that used to brew the coffee. Some coffee lovers also insist that a short black is more akin to a double espresso.


Ristretto Australian Coffee Drinks

A ristretto is a stronger, shorter espresso made with the same amount of coffee but less water. Ristretto devotees swear by its more complex and sweeter flavor.


A latte is a milky coffee with one or two shots of espresso, steamed milk and a thin foam layer at the top. Baristas often showcase their coffee-making skills with latte art – intricate patterns made with the milky foam at the top of the drink. The latte art in Aussie cafes is some of the coolest in the world!


A cappuccino consists of equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and foam. A thick, consistent layer of foam sets the cappuccino apart from a latte and other coffee drinks. The foam layer on a cappuccino should be thick enough to scoop up with a spoon.

Long Macchiato

A long macchiato is an espresso macchiato (in Australia, a short macchiato) with more espresso in it. An espresso macchiato contains a single shot of espresso topped with a small amount of milk foam. A long macchiato is the same drink, with two espresso shotsinstead of one.

Australian Coffee Production

Despite the early failed attempts to establish coffee plantations in the late 1700s, growers pressed on. By the 1880s, coffee plantations had taken hold in northern New South Wales.

Coffee plantations thrived in New South Wales and the Atherton Tablelands in Queensland with seedlings initially coming from Papua New Guinea. Abundant acreage, fertile soils and a subtropical climate made for a perfect coffee-growing environment. Today over 50 coffee plantations exist in these regions.

Australia’s Coffee Production Today

Australia’s coffee mostly grows in low-lying regions along the Eastern coast. Arabica cultivars such as First Fleet, Kairi Typica and Kamerunga Dwarf grow at altitudes of between 900 and 1,500 masl (meters above sea level). Other Arabica coffee varieties like Blue Mountain, Caturra, Bourbon and Kenyan dry-climate varieties SL6 and K7, also grow well in the country.

Interestingly, Australia is the only country to enjoy a lack of coffee diseases. Coffee leaf rust and coffee berry border diseases ravage plantations in other countries, but not in Australia. What’s more, the reduced chemical footprint implies an eco-friendlier coffee!

Arabica Coffee Plants

Aussie coffee growing went next-level in the 1980s. Unlike in other coffee-producing countries, which rely on natural rainfall, Australians do not have the luxury of consistent precipitation. So, to make coffee cultivation economically feasible, farmers instituted irrigation systems on their coffee farms.

As a result, cherries ripen at the same time, which makes mechanized harvesting easier.

Most farmers process their coffee using dry, semi-washed and wet-processing methods. Some coffee-growing plantations, like Mountain Top Coffee Farm, have pioneered the unique double-pass processing. Here, farmers leave cherries to dry on the coffee plant before rehydrating and pulping.

Still, Australia’s green bean output is paltry compared to coffee giants such as Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. The country produces 6,000 tons of green coffee beans yearly from only 850,000 coffee trees. This output generates approximately $5.8 billion (USD) every year.

Overall, the future of coffee in Australia looks bright. Organizations like the Australian government-funded Agrifutures have commissioned a strategic plan for coffee growers.

This plan has made several recommendations on how to keep the budding coffee sector healthy. The strategy also anticipates increased coffee prices due to climate change. Hopefully, this will make Aussie coffee appealing to new markets, especially if farmers lower their production costs.

Final Thoughts: The Bottom Line on Australian Coffee

The Australian coffee culture demonstrates that coffee is more than just a beverage; it’s a way of life. A single sip of that iced coffee or flat white is enough to tell you Australians have an unyielding commitment to quality coffee.

From its humble origins in the 1700s to the present-day mastery of specialty coffees, Australia has carved its own path in the world of coffee. It has forged a unique coffee identity as bold and energizing as its brews.

So, the next time you’re in Australia, don’t settle for any old cup of joe! Immerse yourself in the vibrant culture of Australian specialty coffee. Let the fragrant aromas of perfectly crafted blends and passionate baristas awaken you to a diverse andcaptivating coffee culture.

Ready to awaken your taste buds with Australian coffee? Or have you had Australian coffee before? I’d love to hear your comments on this brew making waves in the coffee world!

Australian Coffee FAQ

The Australian coffee industry places high standards on its coffee. Coffee traders focus on sourcing fresh coffee beans from New South Wales and Queensland or abroad, grown to the highest of standards. Australia’s expert roasters also roast in small carefully-curated batches to ensure only the best coffee beans reach coffee shops.

The typical Australian coffee is a flat white. It contains an espresso shot, steamed whole milk and a thin layer of foam at the top. You can order it “skinny” if you prefer non-fat milk or with a variety of non-dairy options.

Australia’s coffee is famous for being well-sourced and well-produced. Roasters buy high-quality beans and favor light and medium roasts over dark roasts. This policy brings out the coffee beans’ unique flavors and characteristics, allowing them to shine through.

Aussie coffee is usually stronger than American coffee. They make it drip-style using espresso as a base. Unlike American drip coffee, baristas make Australian coffee to order. This means the coffee is fresh and not brewed in advance waiting for a customer’s order.

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Arne Preuss

Hi! My name is Arne. Having spent years working as a barista I'm now on a mission to bring more good coffee to the people. To that end, my team and I provide you with a broad knowledge base on the subject of coffee.

More about Arne Preuss

Hi! My name is Arne. Having spent years working as a barista I'm now on a mission to bring more good coffee to the people. To that end, my team and I provide you with a broad knowledge base on the subject of coffee.

More about Arne Preuss

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